Erasmus Darwin 1770
“Another thing very
injurious to the child, is the tying and cutting of the
navel string too soon; which should always be left till
the child has not only repeatedly breathed but till all
pulsation in the cord ceases. As otherwise the child is
much weaker than it ought to be, a portion of the blood
being left in the placenta, which ought to have been in
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Committee on
Obstetric Practice, Umbilical Cord Blood Gas and Acid-Base Analysis,
Committee Opinion, No. 348, November 2006
College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Committee on Obstetric
Practice, Inappropriate use of the terms Fetal Distress and Birth
Asphyxia, Committee Opinion, No. 303, October 2004
 Frances Cowan et al. Origin and Timing of Brain Lesions in Term
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N A Murray and I A G Roberts.
Neonatal transfusion practice.
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Neonatal Ed., Mar 2004; 89: F101 – 107
“Sick neonates are
one of the most heavily transfused groups of patients in modern
 Linderkamp O. Placental
transfusion: determinants and effects. Clinics in Perinatology
1982;9:559-592 page 560.
 Erasmus Darwin, Zoonomia, 1801;
Vol. III page 321
 Lusk WT (1882) The Science and
Art of Midwifery. New York: D Appleton and Company, pp214-215.
"Infants which have had the benefit of late ligation of the cord are
red, vigorous, and active, whereas those in which the cord is tied early
are apt to be pale and apathetic."
 Shah, P. Riphogen, J, Beyene, J,
Perlaman, M. Multiorgan Dysfunction in Infants with Post-asphyxial
Hypoxic Ischaemic Encephalopathy. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed
2004;89;F152-155. doi: 10.1136/adc.2002.023093
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Cell Volume Measurements and Acute Blood Loss in High Risk Infants.
 Cashmore J. Usher RH.
Hypovolemia resulting from a tight nuchal cord at birth. Pediatr.
 Peltonen T. Placental
Transfusion, Advantage - Disadvantage. Eur J Pediatr. 1981;137:141-146
“There is thus good reason in cases of resuscitation to keep the
placental circulation intact.”
 Weeks, Andrew; Umbilical cord
clamping after birth, BMJ, 18 August 2007, Vol. 335, pp.